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Anti-Federalist 9

A Consolidated Government is a Tyranny

October 17th, 1787 [MONTEZUMA] (excerpt)

Independent Gazetteer:

We the Aristocratic party of the United States, lamenting the many inconveniences to which the late confederation subjected the well-born, the better kind of people, bringing them down to the level of the rabble-and holding in utter detestation that frontispiece to every bill of rights, "that all men are born equal"-beg leave (for the purpose of drawing a line between such as we think were ordained to govern, and such as were made to bear the weight of government without having any share in its administration) to submit to our Friends in the first class for their inspection, the following defense of our monarchical, aristocratical democracy....

Anti-Federalist 11

Unrestricted Power Over Commerce Should Not Be Given the National Government

December 14, 18, 25, and 28, 1787 [AGRIPPA] (excerpt)

Massachusetts Gazette:

It has been proved, by indisputable evidence, that power is not the grand principle of union among the parts of a very extensive empire; and that when this principle is pushed beyond the degree necessary for rendering justice between man and man, it debases the character of individuals, and renders them less secure in their persons and property. Civil liberty consists in the consciousness of that security, and is best guarded by political liberty, which is the share that every citizen has in the government. Accordingly all our accounts agree, that in those empires which are commonly called despotic, and which comprehend by far the greatest part of the world....

Anti-Federalist 10

On the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends

March 18, 1788 [A FARMER] (excerpt)

Baltimore Advertiser:

The opposite qualities of the first confederation were rather caused by than the cause of two parties, which from its first existence began and have continued their operations, I believe, unknown to their country and almost unknown to themselves-as really but few men have the capacity or resolution to develop the secret causes which influence their daily conduct. The old Congress was a national government and an union of States, both brought into one political body, as these opposite powers-I do not mean parties were so exactly blended and very nearly balanced, like every artificial....

Anti-Federalist 12

How Will the New Government Raise Money?

December 6, 1787 [CINCINNATUS] (excerpt)

New York Journal:

On the subject of taxation, in which powers are to be given so largely by the new constitution, you [James Wilson of Pennsylvania] lull our fears of abuse by venturing to predict "that the great revenue of the United States must, and always will, be raised by impost"-and you elevate our hopes by holding out, "the reviving and supporting the national credit." If you have any other plan for this, than by raising money upon the people to pay the interest of the national debt....

   Consolidated government insufficient at preserving public liberty